Indian agriculture began by BCE on north-west India as a result of early cultivation of plants, and domestication of crops and animals. The middle ages saw irrigation channels reach a new level of sophistication in India and Indian crops affecting the economies of other regions of the world.
Land and water management systems were developed with an aim of providing uniform growth. In the period of the Neolithic revolutionroughly BCE, agriculture was far from the dominant mode of support for human societies. According to Gangal et al. Jarrige notes the similarities between Neolithic sites from eastern Mesopotamia and the western Indus valley, which are evidence of a "cultural continuum" between those sites.
Nevertheless, Jarrige concludes that Mehrgarh has an earlier local background," and is not a "'backwater' of the Neolithic culture of the Near East. By the 5th millennium BCE agricultural communities became widespread in Kashmir. A variety of tropical fruit such as mango and muskmelon are native to the Indian subcontinent.
Murphy details the spread of cultivated rice from India into South-east Asia: .
Agriculture PowerPoint Templates
Several wild cereals, including rice, grew in the Vindhyan Hillsand rice cultivation, at sites such as Chopani-Mando and Mahagara, may have been underway as early as BP.
The relative isolation of this area and the early development of rice farming imply that it was developed indigenously Chopani-Mando and Mahagara are located on the upper reaches of the Ganges drainage system and it is likely that migrants from this area spread rice farming down the Ganges valley into the fertile plains of Bengaland beyond into south-east Asia. Outside of the Indus Valley area of influence there are 2 regions with distinct agricultures dating back to around BCE.
These are the Deccan Plateau and an area within the modern states of Orissa and Bihar. Within the Deccan the ashmound tradition developed c. This is characterised by large mounds of burned cattle dung and other materials.
The people of the ashmound tradition grew millets and pulses, some of which were domesticated in this part of India, for example, Brachiaria ramosaSetaria verticillataVigna radiata and Macrotyloma uniflorum.
They also herded cattle, sheep and goat and were largely engaged in pastoralism Fuller'Dung mounds and Domesticators'. In the east of India Neolithic people grew rice and pulses, as well as keeping cattle, sheep and goat. By BCE a distinct agriculture focused on summer crops, including Vigna and Panicum milliaceum was developed. Gupta finds it likely that summer monsoons may have been longer and may have contained moisture in excess than required for normal food production.
In the later Vedic texts c.Viabox
Farmers plowed the soil Cow dung provided fertilizer, and irrigation was practiced The Mauryan Empire — BCE categorised soils and made meteorological observations for agricultural use. India has many huge mountains which abound in fruit-trees of every kind, and many vast plains of great fertility. The greater part of the soil, moreover, is under irrigation, and consequently bears two crops in the course of the year. In addition to cereals, there grows throughout India much millet.
Since there is a double rainfall [i. The Tamil people cultivated a wide range of crops such as rice, sugarcane, millets, black pepper, various grains, coconutsbeanscotton, plantaintamarind and sandalwood.During the latter part of the 18th century, farmers relied on oxen and horses to power crude wooden plows. All sowing was accomplished using a hand-held hoe, reaping of hay and grain with a sickle, and threshing with a flail.
But in the s, the horse-drawn cradle and scythe were introduced, the first of several inventions. Inventions during the early decades of the 19th century were aimed at automation and preservation.
By the s, about labor-hours were required to produce bushels 5 acres of wheat using a walking plow, brush harrow, hand broadcast of seed, sickle, and flail. The growing use of factory-made agricultural machinery increased the farmers' need for cash and encouraged commercial farming. The early s witnessed a dramatic change from hand power to horses, which historians characterize as the first American agricultural revolution. The most important advance of the s was the use of both silos, and the wide use of deep-well drilling, two advances that enabled larger farms and higher production of marketable surpluses.
The first decades of the 20th century saw the efforts of George Washington Carverdirector of agricultural research at Tuskegee Institute, whose pioneering work finding new uses for peanuts, sweet potatoes, and soybeans helped to diversify southern agriculture. While the damage of the Great Depression and the Dust Bowl lasted for a generation, the farm economy rebounded with advances in better irrigation methods and conservation tillage.
The late s—s began the chemical revolution in agricultural science, with the increasing use of anhydrous ammonia as a cheap source of nitrogen spurring higher yields. By the end of the s, farmers were using low-input sustainable agriculture LISA techniques to decrease chemical applications. Share Flipboard Email. Mary Bellis. Inventions Expert. Mary Bellis covered inventions and inventors for ThoughtCo for 18 years.
She is known for her independent films and documentaries, including one about Alexander Graham Bell. Entomological Commission established for work on grasshopper control. Seldon was granted U. By the s, no-tillage agriculture was popularized, increased in usage throughout the period.After you enable Flash, refresh this page and the presentation should play. Get the plugin now.
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Title: History of Agriculture. Description: History of Agriculture. Modified by Georgia Agricultural Education George Washington Carver. Tags: agriculture carver george history washington. Latest Highest Rated. Can agriculture solve it? Put more land into production?
Why could modern corn theoretically not survive thrive without humans? Fossil fuel reliance equipment, fertilizers Impact on land holdings and social structures Impact on jobs 19 Agriculture Foci of genetic engineering? Whether your application is business, how-to, education, medicine, school, church, sales, marketing, online training or just for fun, PowerShow. And, best of all, most of its cool features are free and easy to use. You can use PowerShow. Or use it to find and download high-quality how-to PowerPoint ppt presentations with illustrated or animated slides that will teach you how to do something new, also for free.
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Sign in. Images per Page 25 50 Product Type Icons. Germination Presentation. A Hen Presentation. Barbed Wire Fence Presentation. Green Leafed Plant Presentation. Ears of Rye on Field presentation. White and Orange Pumpkins on Table Presentation. Still Life with Pumpkins Presentation. Bunch of Squashes Presentation. Cotton Flowers in a Vase Presentation. Colorful Fruits and Vegetables Presentation.Agriculture, also known as farming, is the production of food, fiber, animal feed, and other goods by means of growing and harvesting plants and animals.
Agriculture is practiced throughout the world. We use many agricultural products every day, from the clothes we put on in the morning to the sheets we sleep under at night. When you think of agriculture, think of the five F's: food, fabric, forestry, farming, and flowers. The history of agriculture begins in the Fertile Crescent. This area of Western Asia comprises the regions of Mesopotamia and the Levant, and is confined by the Syrian Desert to the south and the Anatolian Plateau to the north.
University of Chicago archaeologist James Henry Breasted coined the term "Fertile Crescent" in the early s to describe this location's role as the birthplace of agriculture.
It has often been called the "Cradle of Civilization" as well, since both the wheel and writing first appeared there. Humans invented agriculture during the Neolithic era, or the New Stone Age, which occurred between 7, and 10, years ago.
There were eight Neolithic crops: emmer wheat, einkorn wheat, peas, lentils, bitter vetch, hulled barley, chick peas, and flax. The Neolithic era ended with the development of metal tools. Evidence suggests that irrigation first appeared in Egypt and Mesopotamia in the sixth millennium B. Various people groups began digging and repairing canal networks, which helped to regulate the flow of rivers, such as the Nile River in Egypt.
Floods caused by the yearly inundation of the Nile would have had disastrous effects for ancient farmers, washing away dikes and swamping fields. Conversely, when the waters were low the land dried up, killing crops. The canal networks eventually developed into sophisticated irrigation systems. The oldest method of irrigation, which made use of man-made underground streams called qanatsis still being used in parts of the Middle East.
During the Bronze Age and the eras that followed, civilizations all over the world gradually invented or acquired advanced metalworking techniques, creating ever-stronger farming implements.
Humans continued domesticating animals and plants to serve as food sources or sources of other useful products. During the Middle Ages, European farmers began using complex irrigation systems such as dams, reservoirs, and water-raising machines.
They also developed the three-field system of crop rotation and the moldboard plow. These inventions greatly increased the efficiency of agriculture. Between the 17th century and the 19th century Britain experienced a dramatic increase in agricultural productivity known as the British Agricultural Revolution.
History of agriculture in the Indian subcontinent
This "revolution" consisted of a variety of improvements to agricultural methods, which took place more or less simultaneously.PowerpointPowerpoint TemplatesTemplates. Page 1. Stone age BC. About 30, years.
Aboriginal Filipinos. Central Asia. Powerpoint Templates. Page 2. Page 3. In BC. Austronesian groups descended from Yunnan Plateau in China and settled in what is now the Philippines by sailing using balangays or by traversing land bridges coming from Taiwan. Austronesians used the Philippines as a stop over to the Pacific islands or to the. Indonesian archipelago.
Those who were. Page 4. Luzon contains large stone. Austronesians pushed the. Negritos to the mountains, while they occupied the fertile. Page 5. Page 6. Page 7. Spanish arrived in the 16th. Page 8. Large haciendas owned by. Rice, coconut, tobacco, abaca, sugarcane were. Page 9. Acapulco, Mexico and then. Page Galleon Trade was the main. The Galleon trade brought silver from New. Spain, which was used to.
Philippine cotton textiles.After you enable Flash, refresh this page and the presentation should play. Get the plugin now. Toggle navigation. Help Preferences Sign up Log in. To view this presentation, you'll need to allow Flash. Click to allow Flash After you enable Flash, refresh this page and the presentation should play. View by Category Toggle navigation.
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History of American Agriculture
Title: History of American Agriculture. Tags: agriculture american disease history management pest plant. Latest Highest Rated. Explain historical achievements of agriculturists.
Identify key people in Agricultures history.
Describe the percentages of the U. Identify key elements of futuristic agriculture. Source FFA Creed 6 The United States as we know it today is largely the result of mechanical inventions, and in particular of agricultural machinery and the railroad. John Moody, Railroad Magnate - 7 The result of agricultural achievement The average American family spends less than 10 percent of its disposable income on food the lowest in the world. Farmers were self-sufficient and could provide for their families.
Department of Agriculture established government support for control of agriculture 15 s Steam powered tractor introduced beginning of first agricultural revolution the shift to mechanized agriculture Refrigerated freight cars introduced ship fruit vegetables long distances and out of season Barbed wire patented confined cattle increased beef production quality 16 s First hybrid crop developed corn greatly increased yield and quality First pesticide discovered Bordeaux mixture increased crop yield quality Federal Hatch Act established agricultural experiment stations nationwide 17 s First gasoline tractor built agricultures greatest achievement Boll weevil invades U.
In73, ethanol plants were in operation in the United States, with 14 new plants under construction. The general public has very little idea of what agriculture is about. Food is cheap and plentiful. Everyone takes it for granted. Shawn S.
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